1828, 24 février, Traité de Yandaboo

Traité de Yandaboo, 24 février 1828

entre la Birmanie et la Compagnie des Indes

Le traité de Yandaboo, entre la Compagnie anglaise des Indes orientales et le roi d’Ava (nom commun occidental des royaumes birmans du XIV au XIXe siècle) a été signé le 24 février 1826. Il marqua la fin de la première guerre anglo-birmane (1824-1826) et la défaite de la Birmanie.

Alors que la Birmanie menait une politique expansionniste depuis le milieu du XVIIIe siècle, un mouvement anti-birman en Inde poussa les deux pays à entrer en guerre en 1824.

Cette dernière se conclue par la signature du Traité de Yanbadoo, le 24 Février 1826, affirmant la victoire de la Compagnie anglaise des Indes orientales.

Treaty of peace between the honourable East India Company on one part, and His Majesty the King of Ava on the other, settled bu Major General Sir Archibald Campbell, K. C. B. and K. C. T. S., commanding the expedition, and seniot commissioner in Pegu and Ava, Thomas Campbell Robertson, esq. civil commissioner in Pegu and Ava, and Heury Dueie Chads, esq. captain, commanding His Britannic Majesty’s and the honourable Compagny’s naval force on the Irawaddy; and by Mengyee-Mahna-Men-Klab-Kyau-Ten-Woongyee, Lord of Lay-Kaeng et Mengyee Mahah-Men-Klab-Shee-hah-the-Airren-Woou, Lord of the revenue, on the part of the King of Ava; who have each communicated to the Yendaboo, in the Kingdom of Ava, on this 24th day of February, in the year of our Lors 1826, corresponding with the fourth day of the decrease of he ? Tuboung, in the year 1187, Mandina Aera.

ART. 1 –
There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the honourable Company on the one part, and His Majesty the King of Ava on the other.

ART. 2 –
His Majesty the King of Ava renounces all claims upon and will abstain from all future interference with, the principality of Assam and its dependencies, and also with the coutiguous petty states of Cachar and Iynita. With regard to Munnipore, it is stipulated that, should Gumbheer Siugh desire to return to that country, he shall be recognized by the King of Ava as Rajah thereof.

ART. 3 –
To prevent all future disputes respecting the boundary line between the two great nations, the british gouvernment will retain the conquered provinces of Arracan, including the four divisions of Arracau, Ramree, Chaduba and Saudowey, and His Majesty the King of Ava cedes all right thereto. The Annonpeeteetonmien, or Arracan mountains, (know in Arracau by the name of Yeornabourg boundary of Pekhenglouug Range) will henceforth form the boundary between the two great nations on that side. Any doubts regarding the asid line of demarcation will be settled by commissioners appointed by the respective governments for that purpose, such commissioners from both powers to be of suitable and corresponding rank.

ART. 4 –
His Majesty the King of Ava cedes to the British government the conquered provinces of Yeh, Tavoy and Mergui and Tenasserim, with the islands and dependencies thereto appertaining, taking the Salween river as the line of demarcation on that frontier. Any doubts regarding their boundaries will be settled as specified in the concluding part of Art. 3.

ART. 5 –
In proof of the sincere disposition of the Burmese government to maintain the relations of peace and amity between the two nations, and as part indemnification to the British government for the expenses of the war, His Majesty the King of Ava agrees to pay the sum of one crore of rupies.

ART. 6 –
No person whatever, whather native or foreign, is hereafter to be molested by either party on account of the part which he may have taken or have been compelled to take in the present war.

ART. 7 –
In order to cultivate and improve the relations of amity and peace hereby established between the two governments, it is agreed that accredited ministers, retaining an escort as safeguard of 56 men from each, shall reside at the durbar of the other, who shall be permitted to purchase or to page 2 build a suitable of residence, of permanent materials; and a commercial treaty, upon principles of reciprocal advantage, will be entered into by the two high contracting powers.

ART. 8 –
All public and private debts contracted by either government, or by the subjects of either government, with the other, previons to the principles of honour and good faith as if hostilities had not taken place between the two nations; and no advantage shall be taken by euther party of the incurred, or in consequence of the war, and according to the universal law of nations, it is further stipulated, that the property of all British subjects who may die in the dominions of His Majesty the King of Ava, shall, in the absence of legal heirs, be placed in the hands of the british resident or consul in the said dominions, who will dispose of the sameaccordinf to the tenour of british law. In like manner the property of Burmese subjects, dying under the same circomstances in any part of the british dominions, shall be made over to the minister or other authority delegated by His Burmese Majesty to the supreme government of India.

ART. 9 –
The King of Ava will abolish all exactions upon British ships or vessels in Burman ports that are not requirend from Burman ships or vessels in British ports; nor shall ships or vessels the property of British subjects, whether European or Indian, entering to Rangoon river, or other Burman ports, be required to land their guns or unship their rudders, or to do any other act required of Burmese ships or vessels in British ports.

ART. 10 –
The good and faithfull ally of the British government, His Majesty the King of Siam, having taken a part in the present war, will, to the fullest extent, as far as regards His Majesty and his subjects, be included in the above treaty.

ART. 11 –
This traty to be ratified by the Burmese authorities competent in tha like cases, and the ratification to be accompanied by all british, whether European or native (American) and other prisoners, who will be delivered over to the british commissioners. The british commissioners, on their part, engaging that the said treaty shall be ratified by the right hon. the governor-general in council, and the ratification shall be delivered to His Majesty the King of Ava in four months, or sooner if possible, and all the Burmese prisoners shall, in like manuer, be delivered over to their own government as soon as they arrive from Bengal.

A. Campheli, Woonghee
(Seal of the Lotoo.)
Shwagum Woon Atawoon,

Larryen Meonja Major General and Senior Commissioner.
T. C. Robertson, Civil Commissioner.
H. D. Chads, Captain, Royal Navy.

Additional article

The British commissioners being most anxiously desirous to manifest the sincerity of their wish for peace, and to make the immediate execution of the fifth article of this treaty as little irksome or inconvenient as possible to His Majesty the King of Ava, consent to the following arrangements with respect to the division of the sum total, as specified in the article before referred to, into installments, viz: — Upon the payment of 25 lacks of rupees, or onefourth of the sum total (the other articles of the treaty being executed), the army will retire to Rangoon; upon the future payment of a similar sum at that place, within 100 days from this date, with the proviso as above, the army will evacuate the dominions of His Majesty the King of Ava, with the least possible delay, leaving the remaining moiety of the sum total to be paid by equal annual instalments in two years, from this 24th day of February, 1826, A. D. through the consul or resident in Ava page 3 or Pegu, on the part of the honourable the East India Company.

Largeen Meonja Woonhec
(Seal of the Lotoo.)
Shwagum Woon Atawoon,

A. Campbell, Major general and senior commissioner
T. C. Robertson, Civil Commissioner.
H. D. Chads, Captain, Royal Navy.

Le texte du traité est publié in

| 8,1 Mo Martens, N. R., t. VI, part. 2, n° 173, pp. 894-898

Pour les références bibliographiques des recueils mentionnés ci-dessous, voy. la page consacrée aux recueils de traités

La présente fiche a été réalisée dans la cadre du programme de stage du Céric à l’Université d’Aix-Marseille.

Elle a été conçue par :

Margaux Chatain (fiche de contextualisation, illustration, résumé, correction du texte intégral)

Marie Albano (correction, mise en ligne)

Pr. Romain Le Boeuf (sources, transcription du texte intégral)

Crédits image : Wikipédia